Diabetes can affect your eyes in many ways. Sometimes, people only find out that they have diabetes when they become short sighted, that is, distance becomes blurry. Treating the diabetes returns the eyes to normal.
Diabetes can also cause cataracts or glaucoma, but the most serious eye related complication of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetes affects the circulation. In the retina of the eye, blood vessels may develop little ‘bubbles’ on them, or small leaks, or haemorrhages. These usually heal without treatment, but especially if your blood pressure is too high or blood sugar control is bad, the haemorrhages get worse. Also, new, fragile blood vessels can form and break, leading to blood and scar tissue inside the eye.
Good blood pressure and sugar control can help prevent diabetic retinopathy. Eye surgeons can treat it with lasers.
Yearly checkups by an optometrist or eye specialist are essential.